The artist is nothing without the gift,
but the gift is nothing without work.
Francoys Gagné differentiates clearly between gifts (natural abilities) and talents (systematically developed from gifts) .
Gagné thinks that all talents are developed from natural abilities through learning influenced by inner and outer catalysts. The main components of Gagné's model - which he refined several times - are:
Gagné lists four domains of natural abilities, which according to him are mostly genetically determined:
The different fields are open to wider argumentation than the natural abilities. Gagné thinks the following fields are relevant for school-aged youths:
Without learning processes whether there are informal - as the
learning of a first language by a child - or formal - as most learning
in school - and practice gifts don't turn into talents.
Several characteristics of the person influence the learning process positively or negatively. They are:
Gagné names four groups of environmental influences on the development of talents:
One last factor influencing the catalysts (intrapersonal and environmental) and the natural abilities (gifts) is chance. Most importantly, chance determines through the recombination of paternal genes which types of giftedness a child possesses and to what extent.
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Giger, April 2006 (Update: 16-12-2007)